• Dr-Ibtisam Saleh


In this study, we will address the most serious electronic crime against information security
and the security of individuals, which is cyber espionage according to the Jordanian criminal
The Jordanian legislation has dealt with espionage crimes in the Protection of State Secrets
and Documents Law No. (50) 1971, and addressed cyber espionage in Article (12) of the
Electronic Crime Law. In order for an understanding of Article 12 to be straightforward, it is
necessary to begin with a clarification of the concept of espionage and in particular cyber
espionage and mention its forms. And then address espionage crimes according to the
Protection of State Secrets and Documents law in terms of their forms, which are limited to
three crimes: 1- entry or attempting to enter prohibited places, 2- theft and obtaining state
secrets, 3- reporting or disclosing state secrets which could be obtained by holding a specific
post. In addition to clarifying the extent of the possibility of committing these crimes by
electronic means. Subsequently, we provided an explanation of the cyber espionage
stipulated in Article 12 of the Electronic Crime Law, in which we clarified its three pillars;
the physical aspect, the subject of the crime and the moral aspect, and we clarified the
penalties imposed on the perpetrators of electronic espionage. Finally, the researcher presents
a number of results that are rational based on the topic of the current study.


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How to Cite

Dr-Ibtisam Saleh. (2020). CYBER ESPIONAGE IN JORDANIAN PENAL LEGISLATION. PalArch’s Journal of Archaeology of Egypt / Egyptology, 17(6), 3892 - 3905. Retrieved from